Assessment: Legal and Regulatory Framework Affecting Treatment and Services for Most-at-Risk Populations in Ghana
|JB Jeffers, MB Dohlie, and NO Lithur|
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The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic in Ghana is a mature, generalized epidemic with pockets of high concentration among select sub-populations and geographic areas. The National AIDS&STI Control Programme (NACP) estimates that national prevalence among all adults was 1.85 percent in 2009 and projects that it will rise to 1.92 percent by 2015 (NACP, 2010b). While prevalence in the general population is relatively low, prevalence among most-at-risk populations (MARPs), including female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM), has been consistently higher. Studies indicate that the primary mode of HIV transmission in Ghana is heterosexual intercourse, which provides opportunities for HIV transmission from MARPs into the population at large through partners of clients of sex workers, female partners of MSM, and partners of injecting drug users (IDUs).
In recognition of the importance of an enabling legal and policy environment that supports MARPs and their access to services, the Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC) requested that the United States Agency for International Development–supported Health Policy Initiative (USAID/HPI) conduct a qualitative assessment to develop an understanding of the current legal and policy framework for MARPs. An enabling environment reduces stigma and discrimination (S&D) against MARPs, protects their rights, and ensures that they have access to needed services. The current assessment adds to existing knowledge about important HIV&AIDS stakeholders' views on the legal and policy environment affecting MARPs in Ghana. It also contributes to interventions and policy and legal reform processes that will help reduce the vulnerability of MARPs to HIV and thus the nationwide impact of the HIV epidemic. The assessment findings complement an ongoing assessment by the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and contribute to Ghanaian efforts in the area of policy and legal reform. They will also help inform the National Strategic Plan for HIV&AIDS (NSP) 2011–2015, which is currently under development.
|Document Type:||Assessment Tools/Indices|
|No. of Pages:||42|
|Keywords:||HIV/AIDS, MARPs (IDU, SW, MSM), Strategic Planning|